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Impacts of fullerene C60 and virgin olive oil on cadmium-induced genotoxicity in rats


• Fullerene C60 induces both genotoxicity and anti-genotoxicity in cadmium chloride exposed rats.
• Strong anti-genotoxicity of virgin olive oil is reported.
• Establishment of optimal settings for fullerene nanoparticles C60 and virgin olive oil biomedical applications is required.

In conclusion, molecular and cytogenetic studies showed that C60 and VOO exhibit anti-genotoxic agents against CdCl2-induced genotoxicity in rats. Further studies are needed to investigate the optimal conditions for potential biomedical applications of these anti-genotoxic agents.

Graphical abstract

Experimental design and genotoxic and anti-genotoxic effects of fullerene C60 and virgin olive oil against CdCl2 toxicity in rats.


The Health Dangers of Cadmium

Cadmium is a toxic metal that occurs naturally in the environment. Humans are exposed to cadmium mostly through plant-derived food. There is no safe margin of cadmium exposure and the need to lower human exposure is desperate. Cadmium produces a number of health problems and is a known carcinogen. In industry, it’s regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and it has a very low permissible exposure level.

Effects of Cadmium Exposure

Cadmium is of no use to the human body and is toxic even at low levels. The negative effects of cadmium on the body are numerous and can impact nearly all systems in the body, including cardiovascular, reproductive, the kidneys, eyes, and even the brain.

  • Cadmium affects blood pressure. [1]
  • Cadmium affects prostate function and testosterone levels. [2]
  • Cadmium induces bone damage (Itai-ltai). [3]
  • Exposure to cadmium can affect renal and dopaminergic systems in children. [4]

According to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the International Agency for Research on Cancer, cadmium induces multiple organ damage and one aspect of that is as a carcinogen. [5] Research by the National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services confirms cadmium is linked to human pancreatic cancer. [6]



Cadmium is a relatively rare soft metal that occurs in the natural environment typically in association with zinc ores and, to a lesser extent, with lead and copper ores. Some inorganic cadmium compounds are soluble in water, while cadmium oxide and cadmium sulfide are almost insoluble. In the air, cadmium vapor is rapidly oxidized. Wet and dry deposition transfers cadmium from the ambient air to soil, where it is
absorbed by plants and enters the food chain. […]
Sources and Uses
Cadmium is emitted into the atmosphere from natural sources, mainly volcanic activities, and Cadmium from anthropogenic sources. Metal production (drying of zinc concentrates and roasting, smelting, and refining of ores) is the largest source of anthropogenic atmospheric cadmium emissions, followed by waste incineration and by other sources, including the production of nickel-cadmium batteries, fossil fuel combustion, and generation of dust by industrial processes such as cement manufacturing (Kazantzis 1987) […]
Health Impacts of Exposure
Ingestion via food, especially plant-based foodstuffs, is the major route by which cadmium enters the human body from the environment. Average human daily intake of cadmium from food has been estimated at around 10–50 μg. This may increase to several hundred micrograms per day in polluted areas. The intake of cadmium through inhalation is generally less than half that via ingestion, while daily intake from drinking water ranges from below 1 μg to over 10 μg (WHO 1987). The kidney, especially the renal tract, is the critical organ of intoxication after exposure to cadmium. Excretion is slow, and renal accumulation of cadmium may result in irreversible impairmentin the reabsorption capacity of renal tubules.


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